With chapters carefully culled from the best-selling Electric Power Distribution Power distribution and quality remain the key challenges facing the electrical utilities industry. With chapters carefully culled from the best-selling Electric Power Distribution Handbook, Distribution Reliability and Power Quality provides an economical, sharply focused reference for engineers and technicians working in this specialty area of power distribution. The book introduces the concept of reliability, outlining various methods of assessing and improving reliability along with the factors that affect it.
It follows with a detailed look at voltage sags and momentary interruptions, various solutions to these issues, power quality monitoring, and other quality issues such as voltage unbalance and harmonics. Because faults are the cause of many interruptions and other power quality problems, the author devotes a detailed chapter to various aspects of faults.
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Focused on enhancing the delivery of high-quality power, this volume includes a new chapter on reliability and power quality improvement programs that provide a roadmap to better performance and ultimately to higher efficiency. Presenting a host of practical solutions for reliability and power quality specialists, Distribution Reliability and Power Quality gathers critical tools, techniques, and knowledge into a single source that is ideally suited for immediate implementation.
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More filters. In , the World Bank reported that lack of energy leads to a significant loss of output at the firm level. More recently, in November , Reuters reported on a blackout in Tanzania that lasted more than 12 hours.
Partial blackouts occur regularly in Tanzania, which relies on hydro[power], natural gas and heavy fuel oil to generate electricity. Whilst there is certainly the need to increase the overall quantity of supply — more gigawatts on the grid - a separate and equally important issue is how to improve customer perceptions of quality of supply, given the existing supply base.
Taking Dar es Salaam as an example, many of the reliability issues are caused by the distribution network rather than the lack of supply — for example by old cabling or unreliable transformers.
Power Quality And Automation: Why Problems Arise - Efficient Plant
Better understanding the detail of these infrastructure problems down to the customer level is important if the more fundamental questions or assumptions that customers have are to be addressed. Much informal chatter focuses on fairness of power availability. Do more affluent areas have better reliability of supply? Do business customers have a better quality service than domestic households? We also know from research with Twaweza that many customers perceive that outages last longer than announced, which impacts their ability to plan around them. This helps to build more informed conversation between customers, electricity service providers, and regulators, and starts to answer some of the questions on quality across different areas outlined above.
Distribution Reliability and Power Quality
ESMI is an international initiative to pilot electricity supply quality monitoring pioneered by the Prayas Energy Group in India; other pilot locations include India, Indonesia, and Kenya. After 8 months of data gathering across 25 locations in 5 districts across Dar es Salaam — namely Temeke, Ubungo, Kinondoni, Ilala and Kigamboni — we have found some interesting trends both on distinct usage and power outage patterns as well as identifying customer behaviour.
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Brownouts are measured as the percentage of time over the month in which the power is on, but not at the appropriate quality. Figure 1. Power outage hours per month across the 5 districts.
In areas like Temeke, with comparatively high rates of power outages, widespread businesses such as hair salons, restaurants, and medical facilities are often forced to resort to other forms of fuel, such as diesel-powered generators. This has significantly increased the cost of operation that can potentially affect growth of businesses and discourage industrial activities in districts subject to power outages, such as Temeke.
In addition to figure 1, which shows overall number of power outage hours per month, we measured percentage time where evenings had more than 6 hours power outage between hours and hours. Figure 2. Data collected during this period shows a significant improvement in Kigamboni over time.